Phase III Project

The Southwest Regional Partnership on Carbon Sequestration’s (SWP) Carbon Capture, Utilization, and Storage (CCUS) deployment phase (Phase III) has begun. Phase III entails a partnership between SWP prime contractor New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, and its new industrial partner, Chaparral Energy, LLC (CELLC), based in Oklahoma City, OK.

The field site for the SWP’s Phase III program is the Farnsworth Unit (FWU), Ochiltree County,Texas (in the Anadarko Basin of northern Texas), operated by CELLC. FWU is currently under CO2 flooding, which began in 2010 and will be expanding at least through 2016. The FWU started development in the mid 1950s and started waterflooding in the 1960s. The area is located in a fully developed agricultural area with both dry and irrigated farming. Essentially 100% of the surface area has been cultivated for many decades.  It is a sparsely populated area with about four farm/ranch residences scattered in the 20 mi2 FWU and three small towns nearby.

The Farnsworth EOR target is the Morrow formation, an incised valley-fill sandstone that extends from eastern Colorado and western Kansas through Oklahoma into the Texas panhandle. As of 2005, the Morrow had produced more than 100 million barrels of oil and 500 billion cubic feet of gas,  (Bowen, 2005). A conservative estimate of CO2 storage capacity of the Morrow within the FWU exceeds 10 million tonnes (based only on rough estimates of formation volume and porosity).  As the SWP gains possession of production data and other reservoir data, more accurate estimates of capacity will be made.

Role of the Southwest Partnership

The Phase III field deployment will involve verifying storage levels of CO2 in an active EOR project, with techniques to monitor quantity and location of the stored CO2.

Once the site selection was made and permitting completed, SWP established surface and subsurface monitoring stations to began creating a baseline to compare portions of the reservoir that have not seen COwith areas where injection has already started. Baseline measurements include soil and water measurements as well as acquisition of 3D seismic data and vertical seismic profiles. Monitoring baselines include areas in patterns that have not seen CO2, as well as areas where COhas already started.
In addition to the monitoring, verification, and accounting (MVA) of injected CO2, extensive reservoir characterization and reservoir modeling is ongoing.

Project Description

At the net CO2 rate of 10 MMscf/d (~190,000 tonnes/yr), it will take approximately five years and four months to inject 1 million tonnes of CO2 into the target formation, the deep oil-bearing Morrow Formation in the FWU Area.

Within the designed development plan, CELLC, the CO2-flood field operator, will maintain injection at the site, to optimize EOR and facilitate associated storage capacity evaluation and assessment of CO2 monitoring efficacy. SWP will also evaluate portability of results, and specifically applicability (transferability) of results with respect to other EOR fields. The FWU site is a unique opportunity for SWP to improve monitoring, verification and accounting (MVA) techniques during the project.

A relatively standard well design is planned to be used for injection at FWU. The completion is intended to facilitate injection into the Morrow oil-bearing zones, quantification of injectivity and total volumes injected.

A variety of characterization, monitoring, and verification techniques will be used. Seismic methods will be emphasized, including 3D surface surveys (3D), 3D vertical seismic profiling (3D-VSP), and cross-well tomography (cross-well); passive seismic will have a particular focus, given the proven ability of these methods to identify the size of the CO2 plume. Engineering and geochemical techniques such as analysis of injection rates, production well rates, as well as direct sampling of water, oil, and gas, use of introduced and/or natural tracers, groundwater chemistry monitoring, downhole pressure and temperature monitoring at injectors (at the surface) and production well locations (at the surface for flowing wells and downhole where applicable with electrical submersible pumps so equipped), soil gas sampling, and other methods as found applicable will also be employed.

Project Fact Sheet

SWP Publications, Conference Proceedings and Major Presentations

Ahmmed, B., Appold, M. S., Fan, T., McPherson, B. J. O. L., Grigg, R. B., White, M. D.,(2016). Chemical effects of CO2 sequestration in the Upper Morrow Sandstone in the Farnsworth, Texas hydrocarbon unit:  Environmental Geosciences Journal, v. 23, p. 1-13. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1306/eg.09031515006

Ahmmed, B., . (2015) Numerical modeling of CO2 -water-rock interactions in the Farnsworth, Texas hydrocarbon unit, USA. Unpublished Master’s thesis, University of Missouri—Columbia. 62 pp. https://mospace.umsystem.edu/xmlui/handle/10355/46985

Ahmmed, B., M. Appold. (2014) Reactive transport modeling of CO2 injection in the Farnsworth, Texas hydrocarbon field. American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting. Dec. 15-19, 2014, San Francisco, CA. abstract #H23A-0847.

Ampomah, W., Balch, R., Cather, M., Rose-Coss, D., Dai, Z., Heath, J., Dewers, T., and Mozley, P., (2016). Evaluation of CO2 Storage Mechanisms in CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery Sites: Application to Morrow Sandstone Reservoir. Energy and Fuels (2016 in press), DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.energyfuels.6b01888

Ampomah, W., Balch, R. S., Ross-Coss, D., Hutton, A., Cather, M., & Will, R. A. (2016) An Integrated Approach for Characterizing a Sandstone Reservoir in the Anadarko Basin. Offshore Technology Conference. May 2-5, 2016, Houston, TX. doi:10.4043/26952-MS

Ampomah, W., Balch, R. S., and Grigg, R. B. (2015). Analysis of Upscaling Algorithms in Heterogeneous Reservoirs with Different Recovery Processes. SPE Production and Operations Symposium. March 1-5, 2015, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, USA. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/173588-MS

Ampomah, W., Balch, R. S., Grigg, R. B., McPherson, B., Will, R. A., Lee, S. Y., Dai, Z., and Pan, F., (2016).  Co-optimization of CO2-EOR and storage processes in mature oil reservoirs, Greenhouse Gas Sci Technol. 00:1–15 (2016); DOI: 10.1002/ghg.

Ampomah, W., Balch, R.S., Chen, H-Y., Gunda, D., and Cather, M. (2016) Probabilistic Reserve Assessment and Evaluation of Sandstone Reservoir in the Anadarko Basin. SPE/IAEE Hydrocarbon Economics and Evaluation Symposium. May 17-18, 2016, Houston, TX. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/179953-MS

Ampomah, W., Balch, R.S., Grigg, R.B., Dai, Z. and Pan, F. (2015). Compositional Simulation of CO2 Storage Capacity in Depleted Oil Reservoirs. Carbon Management Technology Conference. Nov. 17-19, 2015, Houston, TX. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7122/439476-MS

Ampomah, W., Balch, R. S., Cather, M., Will, R., Lee, S. Y., and Dai, Z. (2016). Performance of CO2-EOR and Storage Processes Under Uncertainty. SPE Europec at 78th EAGE Conference and Exhibition, Vienna, Austria, 30 May–2 June 2016. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/180084-MS

Ampomah, W., Balch, R. S., Grigg, R. B., Will, R., Lee, S.Y. (2016): Optimization of CO2-EOR Process in Partially Depleted Oil Reservoirs, SPE Western Regional Meeting, May 23-26, 2016, Anchorage, Alaska. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/180376-MS

Ampomah, W., Balch, R. S., Grigg, R. B. Will, R., and M.D. White (2016): Farnsworth Field CO2-EOR Project: Performance Case History, SPE Improved Oil Recovery Conference, April 11-13, 2016, Tulsa, OK, USA.  DOI: http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.2118/179528-MS

Ampomah, W., Balch, R.S., Will, R., Cather, M., Gunda, D., Dai, Z. (2016). Co-optimization of    CO2-EOR and Storage Processes under Geological Uncertainty, 13th International Conference on Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies, GHGT-13, November 14-18, 2016, Lausanne, Switzerland.

Ampomah, W., (2016) Reservoir characterization and optimization of CO2-EOR process in partially depleted oil reservoirs. PhD. Dissertation, New Mexico Tech.

Balch, B., and Hutton, A. (2015) Geologic Modeling of an Active CO2 EOR and Carbon Storage Project Using 3-D Seismic. 2015 DOE Carbon Storage Meeting. August 18-20, 2015, Pittsburgh, PA.

Balch, B., R. Will, G. El-Kaseeh, R. Grigg, A. Hutton, and P. Czoski. (2015) Integrating Multi-Scale Seismic Measurements for EOR/CCUS. SEG Annual Meeting, Oct. 18-23, 2015, New Orleans, Louisiana. DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.1190/segam2015-5919900.1

Balch, B., Will, R.. (2015) Subsurface Characterization and Seismic Monitoring for the Southwest Partnerships Phase III Demonstration Project at Farnsworth Field, TX. American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting. Dec. 14-18, 2015, San Francisco, CA. https://agu.confex.com/agu/fm15/meetingapp.cgi/Paper/74547

Balch, R., R.P. Esser and N. Liu. (2016) Monitoring CO2 at an Enhanced Oil Recovery and Carbon Capture and Storage Project, Farnsworth Unit, Texas. CO2 Summit II: Technologies and Opportunities, an Engineering Conferences International (ECI) conference. April 10-14, 2016, Santa Ana Pueblo, New Mexico.

Balch, R., B. Mcpherson and R. Grigg. (2016) Overview of a Large Scale Carbon Capture, Utilization, and Storage Demonstration Project at an active Oil Field, Farnsworth, Texas. Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies 13 Nov. 14-18, 2016, Lausanne, Switzerland.

Cather, S.M., and Cather, M.E. (2016) Comparative petrography and paragenesis of Pennsylvanian (Upper Morrow) sandstones from the Farnsworth Unit 13-10A, 13-14, and 32-8 wells, Ochiltree County, Texas. PRRC Report 16-01. 2016.

Chidsey, T.C., Jr., D. E. Eby. (2014) Reservoir properties and carbonate petrography of the Aneth Unit, Greater Aneth field, Paradox Basin, southeastern Utah. Geology of Utah’s far south: Utah Geological Association Publication 43.

Czoski, P., (2014). Geologic characterization of the Morrow B reservoir in Farnsworth Unit, TX using 3D VSP seismic, seismic attributes, and well logs. Unpublished Masters Thesis, New Mexico Tech.

Dai, Z., Viswanathan, H., Middleton, R., Pan F., Ampomah W., Yang C., Jia W., Lee S., McPherson B., Balch R., Grigg R., White M. (2016). CO2 Accounting and Risk Analysis for CO2 Sequestration at Enhanced Oil Recovery Sites. Environmental Science & Technology, 50, 7546-7554. http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/acs.est.6b01744

Dai, Z., H. Viswanathan, Fessenden-Rahn, J., Middleton, R., Pan, F., Jia, W., Lee, S., McPherson, B., Ampomah, W., and Grigg. R.B., (2014). Uncertainty Quantification for CO2 Sequestration and Enhanced Oil Recovery. Energy Procedia, 63:7685-7693, ISSN 1876-6102

Dai, Z., H. Viswanathana, R. Middleton,  F. Pan, W. Ampomah, C. Yang, Y Zhou, W. Jia, S. Lee, B. McPherson, R. Balch, R. Grigg and M. White (2016). CO2 Sequestration and Enhanced Oil Recovery at Depleted Oil/Gas Reservoirs. Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies 13 Nov. 14-18, 2016, Lausanne, Switzerland .

Dai, Z., Middleton, R., Viswanathan, H., Fessenden-Rahn, J., Lee, S., McPherson, B., (2014). An integrated framework for optimizing CO2 sequestration and enhanced oil recovery, Environ. Sci. Technol. Lett. 1, 49-54.

El-Kaseeh, G., Will, R.,  Balch, R.S., and Grigg, R.B. (2016) Multi-Scale Seismic Measurements for CO2 monitoring in EOR/CCUS Project. Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies 13, Nov. 14-18, Lausanne, Switzerland.

El-Kaseeh, G., Will, R.,  Balch, R.S., and Grigg, R.B. (2017) Cost Effective Multi-Scale Seismic Measurements for CO2 Monitoring in EOR/CCUS Project. 20th Middle East Oil & Gas Show and Conference (MEOS), March  6-9, 2017, Manama, Bahrain.

Ennin, E, Grigg, R. B., and Petmecky, C. (2016). Laboratory Review of Effect of Salinity on CO2 Storage Potential in Farnsworth Field. SPE Europec at 78th EAGE Conference and Exhibition, Vienna, Austria, 30 May–2 June 2016. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/180161-MS.

Esser, R., N. Liu, B. McPherson R. Grigg, R. Balch, L. Garcia and T. Fan. (2015) MVA Activities – SWP Farnsworth Unit Project. 2015 DOE Carbon Storage Meeting. Aug 18-20, 2015, Pittsburgh, PA.

Gallagher, S.R., 2014, Depositional and diagenetic controls on reservoir heterogeneity: Upper Morrow sandstone, Farnsworth Unit, Ochiltree County, Texas: M.S. Thesis, New Mexico Tech.

Gragg, E., van Wijk, J., Balch, R. (2016). 2D Petroleum System Modeling in Support of Carbon Capture, Utilization and Storage in the Northeast Texas Panhandle. American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, Dec. 12-16, 2016, San Francisco, CA.

Gragg, Evan J., van Wijk, Jolante and Balch, R.S. (2016). 1D Basin Modeling: A Useful Technique for Geologic Carbon Storage Evaluation. Geological Society of America Annual Meeting Sept. 25-28, 2016, Denver, CO.

Gragg, E., van Wijk, J., Balch, R. (2016). Petroleum System Modeling in the Western Anadarko Basin: Implications for Carbon Storage. New Mexico Geological Society Spring Meeting, April 8th, 2016.

Grigg, R.B., Ampomah, W. and Gundah, D. (2015). Integrating CO2 EOR and CO2 Storage in Farnsworth Field. 2015 DOE Carbon Storage Meeting. Aug. 18-20, 2015, Pittsburgh, PA.

Gunda, D., Ampomah, W., Grigg, R., & Balch, R. (2015). Reservoir Fluid Characterization for Miscible Enhanced Oil Recovery. In Carbon Management Technology Conference. Nov. 17-18, 2015, Sugar Land, TX.

Haar, K., Balch, R.. (2015) Fluid Substitution Modeling to Determine Sensitivity of 3D Vertical Seismic Profile Data to Injected CO2 at an active Carbon Capture, Utilization and Storage Project, Farnsworth field, TX. American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting. Dec. 14-18, 2015, San Francisco, CA.

Hutton, A. and Balch, R.S, (2015) Geologic modeling of an active CO2 EOR and carbon storage project using 3-D seismic models and extracted attributes, Farnsworth, Texas. AAPG Annual Convention, June 2, 2015, Denver, CO.

Hutton, A., (2015). Geophysical Modeling and Structural Interpretation of a 3D Reflection Seismic Survey in Farnsworth Unit, TX. Unpublished Master’s Thesis, New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, 85pp. http://www.prrc.nmt.edu/publications/media/pdf/thesis/Hutton_Thesis_final.pdf.

Jia, W., Pan, F., Dai, Z., Xiao, T., White, M., McPherson, B. (2016). Probabilistic Risk Assessment of CO2 Trapping Mechanisms in a Sandstone CO2 -EOR Field in Northern Texas, USA. 13th International Conference on Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies, GHGT-13. November 14-18, 2016, Lausanne, Switzerland.

Jia, W., McPherson, B., Pan, F., Xiao, T., Bromhal, G. (2016). Assessment of CO2 Storage Mechanisms in a CO2-EOR Field: A Reduced Order Modeling Approach. 2016 AIChE Annual Meeting. 2016 November 13-18, San Francisco, CA.

Walsh, M., Jia, W., McPherson, B., (2016). Geological CO2 Storage Leakage Detection with Statistical Analysis of Field Data. 2016 AIChE Annual Meeting. November 13-18, 2016, San Francisco, CA.

Jia, W., McPherson, B., Pan, F., Dai, Z., Xiao, T. (2016). Uncertainty Quantification of CO2 Storage Mechanisms Using Bayesian Inference. USTAR Confluence 2016:Where Innovation Meets Economic Development. October 4-5, 2016, Salt Lake City, UT.

Jia, W., McPherson, B. (2014) Uncertainty Quantification of Sequestered CO2 in CCS Project. USTAR Confluence 2014: Where Innovation Meets Economic Development. November 3-4, 2014, Salt Lake City, UT.

Jia, W., McPherson, B., Pan, F., Xiao, T., Bromhal, G. (2016). Probabilistic Analysis of CO2 Storage Mechanisms in a CO2-EOR Field Using Polynomial Chaos Expansion. International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, 51, 218-229.

Jia, W., McPherson, B., Pan, F., Dai, Z., and Xiao, T. (2016). Uncertainty Quantification of CO2 Storage Using Bayesian Inference and Polynomial Chaos Expansion. Carbon Capture, Utilization, and Storage (CCUS) Conference. June 14-16, 2016, Tysons, VA.

Jia, W., McPherson, B., Pan, F., Xiao, T., (2015) Impact of Three-Phase Relative Permeability and Hysteresis Models on Forecasts of Storage Associated with CO2 -EOR. 2015 AGU Fall Meeting. American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting. Dec. 14-18, 2015, San Francisco, CA.

Jia, W., and McPherson, B. (2013). Uncertainty Quantification of Sequestrated CO2 in CCUS project. The 62nd Annual Meeting of the Rocky Mountain Section of AAPG.

Moodie, N., McPherson, B., Mandalaparty, P., and Lee, S. (2014). Fundamental Analysis of the Impacts Relative Permeability has on CO2 Saturation Distribution and Phase Behavior. Transport in Porous Media (2015) 108: 233.

McPherson, B., W. Jia, Moodie, N., Pan, F., and Patil, V. (2015). Impacts of relative permeability on subsurface CO2 mineralization and storage. In Advances in Fossil Energy R and D 2015 – Topical Conference at the 2015 AIChE Annual Meeting. (pp. 276-301). AIChE.

Moodie, N., Pan, F., Jia, W., McPherson, B. (2016). Impacts of relative permeability formulation on forecasts of CO2 phase behavior, phase distribution, and trapping mechanisms in a geologic carbon storage reservoir. Greenhouse Gases: Science and Technology, 00, 1-18.

Pan, F., McPherson, B., Dai, Z., Jia, W., Lee, S., Ampomah, W., Viswanathan, H. (2016). Uncertainty Analysis of Carbon Sequestration in an Active CO2-EOR Field. International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, 51, 18-28.

Pan, F., McPherson, B., Pan, F., Esser, R., Xiao, T., Appold, M. S., Jia W., Moodie, N., (2016). Forecasting evolution of formation water chemistry and long-term mineral alteration for GCS in a typical clastic reservoir of the Southwestern United States. Int. J. Greenhouse Gas Control (in press), DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijggc.2016.07.035.

Rose-Coss, D., Trujillo, N., Mozley, P., Heath,, J. Cather, M., (2016). Mudstone Facies, Diagenesis, and Sequence Stratigraphic Interpretation for Caprock Integrity Assessment of the Upper Morrow Shale and Atokan Thirteen Finger Limestone, Farnsworth Unit, Texas. SEPM/AAPG Research Conference on Mudstone Diagenesis, Oct. 16-19, 2016, Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA.

Ross-Coss, D., Ampomah, W., Cather, M., Balch, R. S., Mozley, P., and Rasmussen, L. (2016). An Improved Approach for Sandstone Reservoir Characterization. Society of Petroleum Engineers (May 23, 2016). DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/180375-MS

Rose-Coss, D., Ampomah, W., Hutton, A., Balch, R.S., Cather, M., Grigg, R., and Mozley, P. (2015). Geologic Characterization for CO2 -EOR Simulation: A Case Study of the Farnsworth Unit, Anadarko Basin, Texas. Search and Discovery (2015). http://www.searchanddiscovery.com/pdfz/documents/2015/80484rosecoss/ndx_rosecoss.pdf.html

Trujillo, N., Heath, J., Mozley, P., Dewers, T., and Cather, M. (2016). Lithofacies and Diagenetic Controls on Formation-scale Mechanical, Transport, and Sealing Behavior of Caprocks: A Case Study of the Morrow Shale and Thirteen Finger Limestone, Farnsworth Unit, Texas. American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, Dec. 12-16, 2016, San Francisco, CA.

White, M.D., Bacon, D.H., White, S.K., and Zhang, Z.F. (2013). Fully Coupled Well Models for Fluid Injection and Production. Energy Procedia, 37:3960-3970.

White, M.D., McPherson, B.J., Grigg, R.B., Ampomah, W., and  Appold, M.S., (2014). Numerical Simulation of Carbon Dioxide Injection in the Western Section of the Farnsworth Unit. Energy Procedia, 63 ( 2014 ) 7891 – 7912, ISSN 1876-6102.

White, M.D., Esser, R.P., McPherson, B.J., Balch,  R.S., Liu, N., Rose, P.E., Garcia, L., and Ampomah, W. (2016) Interpretation of Tracer Experiments on Inverted Five-Spot Well-Patterns within the Western Half of the Farnsworth Unit Oil Field. Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies 13 Nov. 14-18, 2016, Lausanne, Switzerland

Xiao, T., McPherson, B., Pan, F., Esser, R., Jia, W. (2016). Potential Chemical Impacts of CO2 Leakage on Underground Source of Drinking Water (USDWs) Assessed by Quantitative Risk Analysis. International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, 50, 305-316.

Xiao, T, McPherson, B.J., Esser, R.P., Jia, W., and Bordelon, A., (2016). Reactive transport modeling of CO2-cement-rock interactions at the well-caprock-reservoir interface: a case study of the Farnsworth unit CO2-EOR demonstration. Carbon Capture, Utilization, and Storage (CCUS) Conference. June 14-16, 2016, Tysons, VA.

Xiao,T., McPherson, B., Pan, F., Esser, R., (2015). Potential chemical impacts of CO2 leakage on Underground Source of Drinking Water (USDWs) assessed by quantitative risk analysis. 2015 DOE Carbon Storage Meeting. Aug 18-20, 2015, Pittsburgh, PA.

Ziegler, A, and Balch, R. (2015). Downhole Microseismic Monitoring at a Carbon Capture, Utilization, and Storage Site, Farnsworth Unit, Ochiltree County, Texas. American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting. Dec. 14-18, 2015, San Francisco, CA.

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