Monitoring and Verification

As a demonstration project a comprehensive monitoring strategy is in place at FWU. This plan includes

Monitoring – understand CO2 plume movement over short and long time periods

  • Direct monitoring tests repeat air and water samples for seeps, leaks, and well-bore failure
  • Seismic MVA utilizes time lapse seismic data at a variety of scales to image the CO2 plume over time

Verification – assurance that CO2 stays in target reservoir, doesn’t make it back to atmosphere

Accounting – accurately measure amount of stored carbon including storage mechanisms


A variety of CO2 monitoring strategies are employed at FWU. Data collected from a variety of monitoring tools are examined on a frequent basis to ensure that no CO2 leakage is occurring.

Detecting CO2 at Surface:

  • Surface soil CO2 flux
  • Atmospheric CO2/CH4 eddy flux
  • Gas phase tracers

Detecting CO2 and/or other fluid migration in Target/Non-Target Reservoirs:

  • Groundwater chemistry (USDWs)
  • Water/gas phase tracers

Tracking CO2 Migration and Fate:

  • In situ pressure & temperature
  • 2D/3D seismic reflection surveys
  • VSP and Cross-well seismic
  • Passive seismic